Investigating the Dust Deposition on Some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Agronomy, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran



Dust from cement factories and sand crushers can cause stress by depositing on the leaves. Accordingly, in areas that are often exposed to such problems, it is important to investigate its effect on plant growth and physiology. This experiment was simulated to investigate dust deposition on soybean leaves and their physiological characteristics. The experiment was carried out on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. Var. Hobbit] via factorial in the form of randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in 2016 and 2017. The factors included the type of dust (cement, clay, and sand), each of them 20 g m-2 at different stages of soybean growth (V3 (third-node), R1 (beginning bloom), R3 (beginning pod) and R5 (beginning seed)). Plant traits measurements included chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, catalase activity, soluble sugar, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), and seed yield. The results proved that dust deposition had significant effects on reducing stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments, Fv/Fm, and soybean yield. Finally, the use of cement dust from stage V3 led to a significant reduction in some traits. In this treatment, the amount of damage was higher with the increase of dust deposition period.

Graphical Abstract

Investigating the Dust Deposition on Some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean


  • A large number of cement and sand Crusher factories, as well as the removal of wetlands, cause the production of dust.
  • Soybean is a broad-leaved plant, and dust settles better on it.
  • The deposition of dust has caused a decrease in photosynthetic pigments, stomatal conductance, the efficiency of photosystem Π, seed yield and an increase in catalase activity.
  • The amount of damage due to the deposition of dust on the soybean plant depends on the growth stage of the plant, the type of dust and the duration of the deposition.
  • Investigating the effect of dust on soybean plants can be used by plant breeders and plant physiology experts to find ways to reduce the damage caused by dust.


Main Subjects

AbdelRahman M.A.E. 2023. An overview of land degradation, desertification and sustainable land management using GIS and remote sensing applications. Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 34: 767-808.
Abdullaev S.F., Sokolik I.N. 2020. Assessment of the Influences of Dust Storms on Cotton Production in Tajikistan. In: Gutman G., Chen J., Henebry G., Kappas M. (eds) Landscape Dynamics of Drylands across Greater Central Asia: People, Societies and Ecosystems. Landscape Series, Springer, Cham.
Achakzai K., Khalid S., Adrees M., Bibi A., Ali S., Nawaz R., Rizwan M. 2017. Air pollution tolerance index of plants around brick kilns in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Journal of Environmental Management 190: 252-258. 
Al Faifi T., El-Shabasy A. 2021. Effect of heavy metals in the cement dust pollution on morphological and anatomical characteristics of Cenchrus ciliaris L. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(1): 1069-1079.
Alonso-Montesinos J., Martínez F.R., Polo J., Martín-Chivelet N., Batlles F.J. 2020. Economic effect of dust particles on photovoltaic plant production. Energies (23)13: 6376.
Babu P.H., Rao K., Jayalalitha K., Ali M.A. 2018. Assessment of different dust pollutants effect on total chlorophyll content, transpiration rate and yield of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 7(4): 2890-2896.
Bahadoran M., Mortazavi S.N., Hajizadeh Y. 2019. Evaluation of anticipated performance index, biochemical, and physiological parameters of cupressus arizonica greene and Juniperus excelsa bieb for greenbelt development and biomonitoring of air pollution. International Journal of Phytoremediation 21(5): 496-502.
Banerjee S., Banerjee A., Palit D. 2022. Morphological and biochemical study of plant species-a quick tool for assessing the impact of air pollution. Journal of Cleaner Production 339: 130647.
Behrouzi M., Bazgeer S., Nouri H., Nejatian M.A., Akhzari D. 2022. Dust Storms Detection and Its Impacts on the Growth and Reproductive Traits of Grape vine (Vitis vinifera) in Malayer Plain. Desert Ecosystem Engineering 8(23): 59-72. (In Farsi).
Bharti S.K., Trivedi A., Kumar N. 2018. Air pollution tolerance index of plants growing near an industrial site. Urban Climate 24: 820-829.
Chaurasia M., Patel K., Tripathi I., Rao K.S. 2022. Impact of dust accumulation on the physiological functioning of selected herbaceous plants of Delhi, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 29: 80739-80754.
De Micco V., Amitrano C., Balzano A., Cirillo C., Izzo L.G., Vitale E., Arena C. 2023. Anthropogenic Dusts Influence Leaf Anatomical and Eco-Physiological Traits of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) Growing on Vesuvius Volcano. Forests 14(2): 212.
Drack J.M.E., Vázquez D.P. 2018. Morphological response of a cactus to cement dust pollution. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 148: 571-577.
Erol K., Cebeci B.K., Köse K., Köse D.A. 2019. Effect of immobilization on the activity of catalase carried by poly (HEMA-GMA) cryogels. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 123: 738-743.
Fusaro L., Salvatori E., Winkler A., Frezzini M.A., De Santis E., Sagnotti L., Canepari S., Manes F. 2021. Urban trees for biomonitoring atmospheric particulate matter: An integrated approach combining plant functional traits, magnetic and chemical properties. Ecological Indicators 126: 107707.
Gawęda D., Nowak A., Haliniarz M., Woźniak  A. 2020. Yield and economic effectiveness of soybean grown under different cropping systems. International Journal of Plant Production 14: 475-485.
Gnoinsky A., Hargiss C.L., Prischmann‐Voldseth D., DeSutter T. 2019. Road dust fails to impact soybean physiology and production. Agronomy Journal 111(4): 1760-1769.
Gross A., Tiwari S., Shtein I., Erel R. 2021. Direct foliar uptake of phosphorus from desert dust. New Phytologist 230(6): 2213-2225.
Hariram M., Sahu R., Elumalai S.P. 2018. Impact assessment of atmospheric dust on foliage pigments and pollution resistances of plants grown nearby coal based thermal power plants. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 74: 56-70.
Hatami Z., Rezvani Moghaddam P., Rashki A., Mahallati M.N., Habibi Khaniani B. 2018. Effects of desert dust on yield and yield components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 64(10): 1446-1458. 
Inskeep W.P., Bloom P.R. 1985. Extinction coefficients of chlorophyll a and b in N, N-dimethylformamide and 80% acetone. Plant Physiology 77(2): 483-485.
Lamare R.E., Singh O. 2020. Effect of cement dust on soil physico-chemical properties around cement plants in Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya. Environmental Engineering Research 25(3): 409-417.
Lhotská M., Zemanová V., Pavlík M., Pavlíková D., Hnilička F., Popov M. 2022. Leaf fitness and stress response after the application of contaminated soil dust particulate matter. Scientific Reports 12(1): 10046.
Li C., Du D., Gan Y., Ji S., Wang L., Chang M., Liu J. 2022. Foliar dust as a reliable environmental monitor of heavy metal pollution in comparison to plant leaves and soil in urban areas. Chemosphere 287: 132341.
Maletsika P.A., Nanos G.D.,  Stavroulakis G.G. 2015. Peach leaf responses to soil and cement dust pollution. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22: 15952–15960.
Maxwell K., Johnson G.N. 2000. Chlorophyll fluorescence—a practical guide. Journal of experimental botany 51(345): 659-668.
Meravi N., Singh P.K., Prajapati S.K. 2021. Seasonal variation of dust deposition on plant leaves and its impact on various photochemical yields of plants. Environmental Challenges 4: 100166.
Najafi Zilaie M., Mosleh Arani A., Etesami H., Dinarvand M. 2022. Improved salinity and dust stress tolerance in the desert halophyte Haloxylon aphyllum by halotolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Frontiers in Plant Science 13: 948260.
Nawaz M.F., Rashid M.H., Saeed-Ur-Rehman M., Gul S., Farooq T.H., Sabir M.A., Iftikhar J., Abdelsalam N.R., Dessoky E.S., Alotaibi S.S. 2022. Effect of Dust Types on the Eco-Physiological Response of Three Tree Species Seedlings: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Conocarpus erectus and Bombax ceiba. Atmosphere 13(7): 1010.
Perini K., Ottelé M., Giulini S., Magliocco A., Roccotiello E. 2017. Quantification of fine dust deposition on different plant species in a vertical greening system. Ecological Engineering 100: 268-276.
Purcell L.C., Salmeron M., Ashlock L. 2014. Soybean growth and development. Arkansas Soybean Production Handbook 197: 1-8.
Ranjbar S., Ghobadi M., Ghobadi M. 2021. Influence of dust deposition and light intensity on yield and some agro-physiologic characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in dry conditions. Iranian Journal Pulses Research 12(2): 69-84.
Semerjian L., Okaiyeto K., Ojemaye M.O., Ekundayo T.C., Igwaran A., Okoh A.I. 2021. Global Systematic Mapping of Road Dust Research from 1906 to 2020: Research Gaps and Future Direction Sustainability 13(20): 1-21: 11516.
Shah K., Amin N., Ahmad I., Shah S., Hussain K. 2017. Dust particles induce stress, reduce various photosynthetic pigments and their derivatives in Ficus benjamina: a landscape plant. International Journal of Agriculture And Biology 19: 1469-1474.
Shah K., Amin N.U., Ahmad I., Ara G. 2018. Impact assessment of leaf pigments in selected landscape plants exposed to roadside dust. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25: 23055-23073.
Shah K., Amin N.U., Ahmad I., Ara G., Rahman M.U., Zuo X., Xing L., Ren X. 2019. Cement dust induce stress and attenuates photosynthesis in Arachis hypogaea. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26: 19490-19501.
Shah K., An N., Ma W., Ara G., Ali K., Kamanova S., Zuo X., Han M., Ren X., Xing L. 2020. Chronic cement dust load induce novel damages in foliage and buds of Malus domestica. Scientific Reports 10(1): 12186.
Sharifi Kaliani F., Babaei S., ZafarSohrabpour Y. 2021. Study of the effects of dusts on the morphological and physiological traits of some crops. Journal of Plant Production Research 28(3): 205-220. (In Farsi).
Singh S., Bhattacharya P., Gupta N. 2018. Dust particles characterization and innate resistance for Thevetia peruviana in different land-use pattern of urban area. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 15: 1061-1072.
Sinha A.K. 1972. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Analytical Biochemistry 47(2): 389-394.‏
Suchkov D.K., Aygumov T.G., Rudnev S.G., Michurina N.Y. 2022. The influence of environmental factors on the development of agricultural production. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1045: 012095.
Tomar D., Khan A.A., Ahmad G. 2018. Response of potato plants to foliar application of cement dust. Tropical Plant Research 5(1): 41-45.
Velayatzadeh M. 2020. Introducing the causes, origins and effects of dust in Iran. Journal of Air Pollution and Health 5(1): 63-70. file:///C:/Users/faride/Downloads/233-Article%20Text-1465-1-10-20200531.pdf
Wehner G., Balko C., Ordon F. 2016. Experimental design to determine drought stress response and early leaf senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Bio-protocol 6(5): 1-16.
Zhang W., Zhang Y., Gong J., Yang B., Zhang Z., Wang B., Zhu C., Shi J., Yue K. 2020. Comparison of the suitability of plant species for greenbelt construction based on particulate matter capture capacity, air pollution tolerance index, and antioxidant system. Environmental Pollution 263: 114615.
Zhou Y., Zhao W., Lai Y., Zhang B., Zhang D. 2020. Edible plant oil: global status, health issues, and perspectives. Frontiers in Plant Science 11: 1-16.
Zia-Khan S., Spreer W., Pengnian Y., Zhao X., Othmanli H., He X., Müller J. 2015. Effect of dust deposition on stomatal conductance and leaf temperature of cotton in northwest China. Water 7(1): 116-131.