Plant Regeneration via Direct Somatic Embryogenesis in Three Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) Cultivars

Document Type : Original Article


1 Crops and Horticultural Science Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kurdistan University, Sanandaj, Iran


Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) is one of the most important fruit plants for both fresh consumption and food processing. The aim of this study was plant regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis in three strawberry cultivars of Kurdistan, Paros and Camarosa. For this purpose, leaf blade of cultivars were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with Thidiazuron (TDZ) at 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/L alone or in combinations with the different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L) of auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). All data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using factorial experimental based on completely randomized design with four replication and means were compared with Duncan’s tests at p< 0.05. The highest induction frequency of embryogenesis and number of somatic embryos per explants was obtained on MS medium containing 3 mg/L TDZ supplemented with 0.25 mg/L 2,4-D. In this medium, the maximum number of globular embryos per explants obtained for the cultivars of Camarosa (25.75), Paros (22.00) and Kurdistan (14.75). The globular embryos of the leaf explants developing into cotyledonary embryos were cultured on MS medium supplemented with sucrose at a concentration of 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12%. Among the tested concentrations, 6% sucrose was found superior for uniform embryo developmental stages.

Graphical Abstract

Plant Regeneration via Direct Somatic Embryogenesis in Three Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) Cultivars


  • Somatic embryogenesis is affected by the interaction between the type and concentration of plant growth regulator and cultivar.
  • Somatic embryogenesis occurs due to changes in the level of auxins and cytokinins in medium.
  • TDZ alone or in combination with 2,4-D play an important role in somatic embryogenesis of strawberry.
  • Increasing sucrose concentrations in the medium improve the development of globular somatic embryos.


Main Subjects

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